Napoli followed the urban development that began in the major European capitals in the middle of the nineteenth century.
The quick running of scientific progress and the rise of the bourgeois class deeply marked the process of urban development and the processes of the city transformation. The policy of Ferdinand II was considered updated with the main European countries.
He developed the idea of creating a western neighborhood – an aristocratic and bourgeois residence place, and an eastern one – for industries and workers – and the construction of a road and rail network .
In 1839 the ” council of city building ” was started, the first railway connection of Italy: Naples – Portici inaugurated, approaching Naples to Herculaneum and the Royal Palace of Portici , a very popular tourist destination during the Grand Tour.
In 1840 the debate on the construction of the industrial district in the east area began, which resulted marshy and poorly suited to industrial development.
The ” technical trips ” became fundamental as means of updating knowledge, and learning from urban development in other cities. In Naples between 1840 and 1880 several urban axes were built: Alley Garibaldi , renovation of Toledo Street , Cathedral Street and Alley Vittorio Emanuele .
The Alley Garibaldi was designed following the construction of the railway, establishing a connection with Foria Street and the Seaside, passing by the Aragon walls .
Alley Vittorio Emanuele is one of the most important routes in the 800s, conceived as a sort of ring road up the hill. The construction works of the Alley Maria Teresa, after Italy Unification renamed Alley Vittorio Emanuele, began in 1853 and ended in 1873. The neighborhood surrounding the Alley Vittorio Emanuele as early as 1859 turned out to be aristocratic and bourgeois .
The Cathedral Street was an attempt to decongest the old town part allowing direct access to Seaside Street and Foria Street. By a slight slope it was possible to solve the problem of unevenness in the three decumani .
Cathedral Street is the first case of town demolition and is the only way altering the design of the ancient core of the city.
In 1860 the City Council of Naples approve works about the extension of the Alley Garibaldi , and the connection of Allet Vittorio Emanuele with Toledo Street and Vomero quarter.
The layout of the seafront was arranged, isolating the town park and establishing a pleasant road along the seaside area. Despite the planning, the works went very slowly and in some cases never completed, due to some administrative and bureaucratic difficulties, influenced by the attitude of speculative business classes .
Precepts of Art were established, essential information which were to be obeyed by all architects, thus forming a distinctive feature of the townscape – a classical appearance. This legislation remained in force about 20 years after Italy Unification.
After Italy Unification in Naples we see a continuation of the works started or planned during the previous regime. Between 1861 and 1871 the hygienic conditions in the city worsened more and more , until 1884 the period of cholera outbreak and the subsequent restoration.
The national law of 1865 obliged the owners to contribute in fulfilling public works, this was the first step to start the dynamics for restructuring town centers. In subsequent years plans of “enlargement “, ” expansion “, ” embellishment ” will follow.
With Italy Unification the process of unification of the national network of mobility begins, as it could not be separated from the development of city centers. In the Naples east area an industrial center developed, registering the presence of iron and steel factories and manufacturing sites, in particular products of leather and textile manufacturers in addition to ceramics.
This concentration of production together with the presence of the railway station suggested the government programs aimed at the industrial growth of the place .
At the same time there was a progressive scientific and technological development that led to the gradual spread of railway tracks, and attempts of planning the city development. From a social point of view there was the final statement of the bourgeois and entrepreneurs class, which will determine the transformation of large town centers.
The construction of places for tourist accommodation and services, the improvement of transport systems will be preferred and promoted, as well as trade, culture, and recreation places, but also the planning of health care facilities, representation services and so-called “places of memory ” .
In southern Italy the territorial development policies, started during the Bourbon period, had an obvious derivation from the processes undertaken during the French decade -1806-1815. In 1887 the municipality of Naples began again to discuss the possibility of a master plan for equally developing industry, trade and urban planning, like in other Italian cities .
The commission in charge of drawing up the plan, proposed the creation of a navigable canal allowing the transport of goods, and at the same time it solved the problem of the area restoration, with the outlet of its water into the sea.
The dirty water would be discharged into a depth of about five meters from the sea surface, allowing the free movement of waters, a steady element of unhealthy causes for that place. In addition to the production value, new housing for the working class were planned.
The master plan of the new industrial district was approved in 1887 and included, as a restoration plan, in the expense funds allocated by the special law of 1885.