The modern age in Naples is identified with the coming of Alfonso of Aragon, who in 1492 managed to wrest the kingdom of Naples, René d’Anjou and Naples politically unite with the kingdom of Sicily.
One of the first actions was the rebuilding of New Castle, which was transformed into a fortress by imposing structure, with towers piperno and footings, to prevent climbing.
The crenellated terrace which allows the use of modern artillery, and the triumphal arch which represents the triumphal entry of Alfonso of Aragon.
In 1497 by Archbishop Alessandro Carafa have the return of the relics of St. Gennaro, Cardinal Oliviero Carafa (brother of Alexander) started the creation of the crypt under the main altar, which is one of the largest architectural works of the Renaissance Naples.
The Aragonese reign lasted until 1503 where after the Franco-Spanish war Naples became a Spanish viceroyalty.
Viceroyalty, which will end after two centuries, not for this Naples slowed the growth urban planning, art and culture, remaining a major European capital.
In the early decades of the 1500s important was the imprint of Maria Longo
Maria Longo, widow determined to dedicate his life to serving the sick, having been miraculously cured by St. Gaetano founded the church and the hospital Santa Maria del Popolo the Incurable which became one of the largest hospitals in the south, as well as a prestigious medical school.
In 1535-36 Naples was home to Charles V and the Viceroy Don Pedro de Toledo began a sort of Neapolitan Renaissance, a period of great growth mainly cultural.
Not overlooked, is the cultural presence of women, especially Orsola Benincasa who with his works characterized the viceroys.
Orsola Benincasa received his early education at home by his brother who got busy to give him a knowledge of the Bible and the scriptures.
When expressed its mystical qualities was placed at the center of attention of the people, which is not distracted her from her life straight and devoted to his work (drafting of drapes).
In 1579 gave his live exemplary ecclesiastical authorities allowed him to set up a chapel in his own home.
In 1581, with the Abbot Gregorio Navarro realized the mountain of S. Martino with a retreat by the church of the Immaculate Conception, the withdrawal was intended to create a community of lay people with the help of priests could reform the church.
Orsola expounded his idea to Gregory XIII, who handed it to the court of the Inquisition.
He was ousted after it was founded, only later he returned with the opening of a girls’ school on the hill S. Elmo, a work which had great success among the aristocratic families.
Next to death O. Benincasa dictated the rules for a hermitage which was to receive 33 virgins in a cloistered community.
Following the death of Ursula there were several attempts to build the hermitage, which was not completed until half a century later, at the foot of S. Martino 1606 was the start of construction of the chapel of S. Gennaro, in the same year Caravaggio painted the “seven works of mercy”
work with which the painter shows the everyday life of Naples, only later founded the school of painting of Caravaggio (Caravaggio of note were Artemisia Gentileschi and Annella Massimo)
1604 foundation of a brotherhood of nobles who were collecting alms to celebrate masses for the souls in purgatory.
Initiative which enjoyed considerable success to allow the construction of the church S. Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio known for its cemetery and for the care and prayers of which contained human remains, a practice which degenerated into superstition which led the ecclesiastical authorities to close several ossuaries in the city including the cemetery of the drinking fountains.