In ancient times the Solfatara was known as the square of Hephaestus, where even then the volcanism of the Phlegrean Fields was observable.
The only monumental rest of District Terra is the temple of Augustus, fully saved, as transformed into the church of St.Procolo in the XI century. The church underwent some changes between 1500-1600 during the construction of the side chapels.
The restoration works, following a fire, brought to light one of the best examples of the Augustan architecture. It was built by the architect Lucio Aucto who realized the crypts of Cuma and Naples.
Outside the District Terra there are numerous ruins now incorporated into modern houses.
Monuments such as the Temple of Diana and Neptune are difficult to be reached, but their size reflects the importance of the city in the late Republican and Imperial age.
Located between the solfatara and Mount Guaro, just there, where crossed the most important streets: Domitiana, Campana and Antiniana.
The Flavian Amphitheatre was built by Vespasian following the increase of the population of Pozzuoli, at that time a flavian-augustan colony.
This is evidenced by the discovery of registration Colonia Flavia Augusta Puteolana pecunie sua.
The amphitheater had three architectural orders crowned by an attic. An elliptical porch surrounded the building, through this it was possible to reach four main and twelve secondary entrances, to facilitate the exit of the spectators.
From the outside porch departed twenty flights of stairs allowing to reach higher areas. Other meeting points were obtained in the arches under the auditorium.
In the first arch there was a podium for statues with marble floor with inscriptions dedicated to Caio Trofimiano.
The auditorium was divided into three ranges, above these there was a porch with columns and statues , which in the Middle Ages were used for the production of lime.
Ambulatories and underground kept well preserved as they were covered by the ashes of solfatara. the basement could be reached by two steep stairs.
Observing the underground we can understand the operation of lifting structures, essential for Venationes, or shows with wild beasts. There were stored the necessary tools for the shows too.
The basement consisted of two corridors crossed in the center (assuming a form of H). The four rooms were communicating with each other.
The corridor was fitted with stone openings, with wooden hatches from which animals were raised.
Even this one, as other amphitheaters, is related to the Christian martyrology. St.Gennaro was taken here to suffer his torment, but the sentence was suspended because of the absence of the governor of Campania, so the penalty was commuted to his beheading.
Only in the fifth century his relics were transported to Naples, becoming a destination of worship such as those of S.Procolo in Pozzuoli.
Today of this amphitheater you can only see about ten arches, and the auditorium from Via Solfatara, other arches are observable from Via Vigne.
The building is to be dated about in the second century.
known as the Temple of Serapis for the discovery of the statue of the god in 1750, the Macellum is actually a public market, with a round building in the center (one of the same type is located in Pompei, but smaller) as large as was necessary to serve the center of a big commercial city.
The building has a square courtyard surrounded by thirty-six Corinthian columns, decorated with shells containing dolphins. The court and the porch were paved with marble slabs.
At the center there is a circular building called Tholos, with walls covered in marble. Access to the court was provided by four stairs, with four railings dolphin shaped and with friezes of seas animals. Sixteen Corinthian columns supported the lintel, and on it rested a perhaps conical coverage.
Around the porch there were the shops, six on the entrance side and eleven on the other two sides.
The need to increase the usable space pushed to develop a second floor decorated with a second order of columns and accessible through two flights of stairs.
In the corners were the bathrooms, decorated with marble niches, and lit by a large window.
Perforated marble benches communicated with a discharge channel which, thanks to a proper slope, let waters flow away and guaranteed hygiene.
The most important point of the Macellum was represented by the front hall embellished by honorary statues. Important was the flooring with red, yellow, purple and green marble.
Three niches contained statues of the market protectors: Serapis – Genius -Macelli – characters of the imperial family.
From the Temple of Serapis it is possible to observe the phenomenon of bradyseism on the three central columns, where the holes left by the sea dates, demonstrate the level reached by the sea.
In the Middle Ages the floor was five meters below the water level. In 1700 the temple was re-emerging, but in 1800 the slow sinking made it unhealthy.
The Macellum – Temple of Serapis
The harbour is the economic center of the city.
From the second century b.C. it was an important trade center of the Mediterranean, by Pozzuoli passed anything was to reach Rome, from the slaves to the corn.
Of the old pier, following the construction of the new one, nothing remains. Except for some eighteenth-nineteenth century depiction, we would have never known what was the appearance of the old port, considered one of the greatest engineering works of the time.
The old harbor was formed by 15 pillars supporting 15 arches on which rested a platform, at whose end there was a triumphal arch with statues of Neptune and the Dioscuri and probably a lighthouse.
This structure of the Augustan age was damaged by a storm and restored only in the time of Antoninus Pius.
Campana Street is the main outside-town street of Pozzuoli, it was edged with monumental tombs today giving us an idea about the costumes and about Roman funerary architecture.
Among the various tombs prevails a tomb with columbus patterns, or rooms with perforated walls to house the urns. Two or more storey graves were often dug towerlike.
It was frequently found, to be family or associations tombs which ensured a decent funeral at little cost. Cremation was the most common practice, the deceased was burnt on a stake and the ashes kept in a funerary urn and subsequently placed in the niche.
Once the urn was placed into the tomb, only the name and age of the deceased was indicated.